WORLDS OF KNOWLEDGE

Abstracts


SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN THE SPOTLIGHT. IN SEARCH FOR MEANING

ZORNITZA TCHAKMAKOVA

Last years were marked by several social movements’ actions worldwide: in North and South America, Europe, Asia. The intensity of mobilization in different contexts challenges social scientists. In regard to the increasing number of social movements, including movements in Bulgaria, there is an undeniable necessity in analytical apparatus that permits making sense and a profound understanding of these phenomena. The current article presents the main academic approaches to studying social movements. The notion of social movement is operationalized. The accent is put on the framing perspective that focuses on the processes of mobilization – signifying, construction of meaning, action-orientation, and elaboration of strategies.  

Keywords: social movements, collective action, framing perspective


ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN BULGARIA: DILEMMAS AND CHALLENGES

VENELIN PETROV
The current paper calls into question the applicability of a popular university technology transfer model, which was imposed as an innovation paradigm in our country mainly through the medium of EU funding without taking into account national institutional characteristics. Currently, not only empirical research but also a lot of policy initiatives are inspired by abstract and normative models of university and industry relationship, like those for the establishment of technology transfer offices.

Keywords: academic entrepreneurship, university technology transfer, entrepreneurial university


A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF A “MUSIC LABORATORY”. THE DUET OF SCIENCE AND ART  

VENETA MITEVA
This article presents the music as an object of sociological analysis and the focus is on two musical genres – rock music and electronic music. The idea of writing this article was engendered from my personal commitment to the subject of study, as my aim was to examine technique and technology in the process of creating music. The basic theory used is the actor-network theory (Bruno Latour), complemented with the concepts of “taste of public” (Antoine Hennion), and the analysis of the contact between author and audience (Alfred Schutz). The article refers to empirical evidence of fieldwork from 10 to 30 October 2013.

Keywords: sociology of music, subculture, actor-network theory, rock music, electronic music


WHEN THE STARS DISAPPEAR. ABOUT THE CONSTITUTION OF ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS
AND THEIR AUTONOMY

TIHOMIR MITEV, IVAN IVANOV
The paper presents an attempt at analysis of the process of the constitution of the scientific object. Examining the case of astronomy, in particular the field of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen, the paper focuses on a “crisis” situation, which authors have witnessed during the summer school “Science, technology, innovations”, part of the curricula of the students in Sociology of law, economics, and innovation at Plovdiv University. The concepts of research object, scientific knowledge, observation are questioned in the way that they appear in an actual research situation.
Nota bene: the structure of the presentation follows a logics of a “blown up” temporality – time does not pass, it does not follow; it explodes into the epicenter of the presented “crises” situation. It is the “crises” since it is actual “trials of strengths” (Latour), that make its own time, space, filling an order (of the astronomical everyday life)…

Keywords: astronomy, research object, scientific knowledge, action, actor-network theory


IDENTITIES AND ATTACHMENTS: RICOCHETS OF THE DIGITIZATION OF OBSERVATION
IN THE PROFESSIONAL AND AMATEUR ASTRONOMY

IVAN TCHALAKOV, IRINA POPRAVKO
The article analyzes the worlds of professional astronomers and astronomers-amateur and their technological base. It adopts a critical look at the established research approach to this subject, in particular the actor-networks theory (ANT) of Bruno Latour and Michel Callon. The concept of (professional) identity is considered from the perspective of “ethnography of professions”. An attempt was made to introduce a new language for describing and analyzing the two knowledge communities based on the sociology of taste and attachment of Antoine Hennion. The paper questions the feasibility of ANT “relationist notion” of a technical object in situations, where the prediction of the future effects of this object introduction is needed. Following Graham Harman, the paper suggests supplementing ANT approach with elements of the media (artefactual) analysis of the Canadian researcher Marshall McLuhan.

Keywords: identity, endurance, actor-network theory, professional and amateur astronomers, telescope, digital camera, media theory of Marshall McLuhan


WHEN THE PERSONAL IS POLITICAL: COERCION IN THE NAME OF AUTONOMY

INA DIMITROVA
The aim of the article is to discuss one conceptual contradiction in the arguments of the disability rights/critique perspective, concerning two crucial issues – selective abortion of fetuses, diagnosed with genetic condition, and assisted suicide. The argumentative scheme, employed by these scholars and activists, deserves close reading since, first, it has the potential to go beyond the disability rights debate and to play a positive role in the process of limiting the right to abortion. Second, because it makes visible one important theoretical problem, concerning autonomy and, particularly, the notion of (non-)voluntary action, which is in the focus of the debates on paternalism, which recently enjoys renewed attention.

Keywords: assisted suicide, selective abortion, non-voluntary action, paternalism


APPLYING THE BEST INTEREST PRINCIPLE TO CHILDREN’S TREATMENT

MARGARITA GABROVSKA

Regardless of the widespread compliance with the concept of child’s best interest in the social, medical, legal and other areas, there are still significant ethical disputes about the criteria that constitute the concept and the reliability of its implementation. The article analyzes both the notion and practice, related to the concept when it comes to making decisions about children in the field of medical treatment and care. Employing available experience and knowledge the text examines two separate approaches to substantiate the best interest principle, and also to link it
to criteria ensuring its proper implementation within the field the specialized care for children.

Keywords: ethics, medicine, children, best interest

 

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Contents

 WORLDS OF KNOWLEDGE

Issue Editor: Ivan Tchalakov

THE COGNITIVE APPROACH TO SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Social Movements in the Spotlight. In Search for Meaning
Zornitza Tchakmakova

MODELS AND POLICIES IN KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

Academic Entrepreneurship in Bulgaria:
Dilemmas and Challenges
Venelin Petrov

 ЕLЕСТRОNIС MUSIC, YOUTH SUBCULTURES AND ACTOR-NETWORK THEOR

A Sociological Study of a “Music Laboratory”. The Duet of Science and Art
Veneta Miteva

SOCIOLOGY OF ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATION

When the Stars Disappear. The Constitution of Astronomical Objects and Their Autonomy
Tihomir Mitev, Ivan Ivanov

Identities and Attachments: Ricochets of the Digitization of Observation in Professional and Amateur Astronomy
Ivan Tchalakov, Irina Popravko

BIOETHICAL AND BIO-LEGAL REGULATIONS

When the Personal Is Political: Coercion in the Name of Autonomy
Ina Dimitrova
Applying the Best Interest Principle to Children’s Treatment
Margarita Gabrovska

Rights of Nature: Is There a Place for Them in Legal Theory and Practice?
Stoyan Stavru

CLASSICAL HERITAGE

The Problem of Generations
Karl Mannheim

 

HARM: ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ANALYTIC PERSPECTIVES
Relationships of Harm and Violence. Experiential Substrate Bedrock, the Unconscious Transmission of Tradition /
Unconscious Traditions and Violence in Social Practice
Jürgen Straub

Listening to Suffering: Socioanalysis and the “Pathos” Turn in the Concept of Experience
Svetlana Sabeva

THE EVERYDAY TRUTH-CONDITIONS OF THE LIE

The Lie as a Regulator of Everyday Understanding
Kolyo Koev

CORPORATE CULTURE: MEDIA RHETORIC AND PROFESSIONAL STRATEGIES

Outsourcing Centers as Global “Saviors”: Short Term Perspective, Prestigious Alternative or Social Constraint for Bulgarian Youths
Niya Neykova

IN MEMORIAM

Umberto Eco (1932–2016)


Scientific Events

Two Jubilee Conferences of Macedonian Colleagues
Stefan Em. Nikolov

How Do We Problematize Supermodern Capitalism? A Scientific Session of the Institute for Critical Theories
of Supermodernity (9–10 January 2016, Sofia)
Martina Mineva

Social Entrepreneurship in Bulgaria: Good Practices and Educational Perspectives, New Bulgarian University
(15–16 April 2016, Sofia)
Liliya Borisova, Pavlina Petrova, Valentin Valkanov

Transcultural Memory and Its Reception in Europe
(17–19 April 2016, Sofia)
Slavka Karakusheva

Comments and Reviews

Conflict and Cohabitation Viewed through Law during the Crisis and Breakdown of the Ottoman Empire
(Konflikt und Koexistenz. Die Rechtsordnungen Südosteuropas im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Klostermann, 2015)
Ivan Biliarsky

Veiling of Arab Muslim Women in the Past and Today (Galina Evsttatieva, The Islam and the Women Veiling
in the Arab World, Iztok-Zapad, 2016)
Yordan Peev

Thorstein Veblen and His Theory of the Leisure Class  (Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class,
Iztok-Zapad, 2016)
Rosen Lutskanov

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