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PROBLEMS OF SOCIOLOGICAL CAREERS IN BULGARIA: CONDITIONS OF POSSIBILITY AND PATH DEPENDENCE
The article studies the problem of sociology as a profession in Bulgaria. More specifically, it explores the way in which sociological qualification is constructed and perceived, what defines its specific profile, and what types of professional realization it is related to. The analysis is structured in two parts: the socialist legacy, which affects the professionalization of sociology, is presented in the first, and the post-socialist transformation of the problem of the professional realizations of graduates in sociology is the core issue in the second part.
The „privileged“ perspective from which we study the current state of this problem is based on analysis of the historical development and characteristics of sociology as a scientific discipline and university specialty, of education policies (particularly those of departments of sociology) after the changes of 1989, the content of the university curriculums and professional trajectories of the faculty, as well as the students’ and graduates’ assessments of the education in sociology. Yet, last but not least, the perspective is also „privileged“, as it is clearly subjective and committed. Committed to the future of Bulgarian sociology.
MODERNISING THE STATE, BUILDING THE NATION: ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE UNEASY EVOLVEMENT OF SOCIAL SCIENCES IN MODERN GREECE
The article focuses on the institutional and conceptual history of anthropology in the wider context of the evolvement of social sciences in Greece. Anthropology is a discipline which has a relatively recent institutional presence in the Greek academia but a long and dynamic intellectual trajectory. Throughout our analysis we will examine the reasons why there has been such a slow and hectic development of anthropology in this country. As we will try to show, since the 19th century, Greek society has been attached to a double political and mental enterprise, which we name „modernization“: the construction of a modern state that acts as the main operator of social organization on the one hand, and nation-building on the other. These two projects have been combined, and one or the other has been given priority in different historical periods and by different political regimes, orienting to a large extent the directions of scientific work. More specifically, we will come across the strong influence of folklore and history as nation-building sciences starting from the end of the 19th century; they made difficult the establishment of social sciences and especially of anthropology as a critical discipline oriented towards the study of „cultural differences“. We will then examine the tighter economic, political and epistemological connexion of the country to the „West“ after WWII and the introduction of anthropology in Greece as part of a modernising process. Finally, we will place an emphasis on the ongoing transformations in the discipline during the last two decades, which represent its most flourishing period inside the Greek academia, and comment on some of the challenges facing anthropology today.
POST-SOCIALIST HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE MIRROR OF THE SOCIALIST PAST: THE CASE OF THE DISCIPLINE OF SOCIOLOGY AT SOFIA UNIVERSITY ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI
This article analyzes the educational transformations in the discipline of sociology at Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski (SU) during the period 1990–2006. These transformations have been analyzed through the study of three main aspects: lecturers’ trajectories, structure and content of the university curricula, and content orientation of education. Data from various archives and from in-depth interviews have been used. The author shows that the transformations in the oldest department of sociology have been carried out through two main mechanisms: the dependence on inherited structures from the time of late socialism, and the autonomy of educational units and of individual lecturers to (not) initiate changes. The analysis reveals that these two mechanisms have been used in different ways during the studied period, which leads also to non-linear, though unidirectional, transformations of the education in sociology at Sofia University.
HIGHER EDUCATION AS AN ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THREE PORTRAITS OF THE DISCIPLINE OF SOCIOLOGY
IN BULGARIA (1990–2006)
PETYA SLAVOVA, TIHOMIR MITEV
This article analyzes the educational entrepreneurship in the discipline of sociology at three state universities during the period 1990–2006. More specifically, it analyzes the legislative and institutional problems which took place in the field of higher education and shows how various projects have been initiated for the establishment of new sociology-teaching departments at various universities. Higher education is studied as an entrepreneurship that gathers followers and deciphers the existing legislative, institutional and political context in a particular way. Thus, the article shows how the market of educational services in sociology emerged in post-socialist Bulgaria.