TOPIC OF THE ISSUE:

BULGARIAN AND BALKAN MIGRATIONS AND MOBILITIES

This Issue Editor: Anna Krasteva

Abstracts

AUTOETHNOGRAPHY OF THE TRANSITION – THE NOTIONS OF REFUGEE AND ASYLUM IN POST-1989 BULGARIA

ROSSITZA GUENTCHEVA
The article analyzes the incorporation of the notions of refugee and asylum into the Bulgarian public space after 1989, when there started a multilayered process of translation of key terms relating to the political, social, institutional and cultural transformations after the collapse of the socialist regime. This process – besides being translation from one language to another – represents in its essence an effort at understanding, reconstruction and negotiation of meanings. The Bulgarian publics coined new concepts while absorbing foreign models, selecting elements thereof and combining them with previously existing local meanings. The new interpretations were elaborated under the strong influence of the rights-based discourse of the United Nations and the concomitant – sometimes conflicting and focusing on security – discourse of the European Union, in a context where the policies of those external normative sources were themselves in a process of internal dynamics and change.

Keywords: refugee, asylum, trafficking in humans, Bulgaria

IMMIGRATION CONTROL AND THE RIGHT TO FAMILY LIFE

VALERIA ILAREVA

The family is a fundamental unit of society. This holds true also when the members of a family are of different nationalities. But does the migration policy take this social phenomenon into account and what are the social consequences of that? The article strives to provide answers to these questions from the point of view of International, European and Bulgarian law through a comparative analysis of them. The author studies the boundaries of the sovereign discretion of the State, whether the State has the right to separate families and what is the scope of the right to respect for family life. The article takes note of painful problems in the practical implementation of the Bulgarian migration policy. For the first time it presents information on the coercive leave of Bulgaria by Bulgarian citizens in mixed marriages as the only way to preserve the unity of their families.

Keywords: immigrants, family, children, deportation, discrimination

MIGRATION AND CITIZENSHIP: GLOBAL CHALLENGES WITH LOCAL DIMENSIONS

EVELYINA STAIKOVA

The article presents the specific relations between migration processes and the theory of citizenship, a topic that has become significant for political studies since 1980. The analysis focuses on how the concept of citizenship is situated in an entirely new context under the impact of globalization processes and due to the increasing dynamics of international migration. In this connection are presented some new views on multicultural, transnational, European citizenship and denizenship.

Keywords: migration, citizenship, transnatsionalizam, multiculturalism denizenship, EU
TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY OF THE HIGHLY SKILLED: CHALLENGES FOR SERBIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS

MIRJANA MOROKVASIC

People with human, financial and social capital marketable beyond their country of origin – the ‘brains’ – are potentially more mobile than others who do not possess such capital. Their departure has long been frowned upon as an irreversible loss for the countries of origin who invested in their education and expected a return in terms of input in development and democratic transition. In the past two decades and in line with changing migration patterns, there has been a gradual change of perspective in what used to be considered exclusively a ‘brain drain’. More prevalent today, is a focus on mobility and the so-called win-win orientation rather than on loss.

What caused that change of perspective when there has been no decrease in the proportion of the highly skilled leaving their countries and the consequences of their departure are no less alarming than before? This paper aims to contextualize the developments of the past few years in Serbia, to shed light on the changing migration patterns, and to discuss some new theoretical and political perspectives. It draws on my previous and ongoing research into the transnational mobility in particular of the highly skilled from post-Communist transition economies.

Keywords: transnational, migration and mobility, highly skilled, Serbia, Western Balkans


BORDERS OR GLOBALIZATION: BALKAN DILEMMAS

ANNA KRASTEVA
The article is looking at the paradox of globalization and borders. Two strong, yet opposite tendencies occur simultaneously: de-bordization as a result of globalisation on the one hand, and multiplication and diversification of borders on the other. The border is examined through the prism of death, business, politics, and identity. The study follows two axis: one is the overproduction and overactivity on borders, the opening and closing of spaces, the other is the overproduction of meanings, interpretations, perceptions. The Balkans are among the places of whirlpool of bordering, ordering, othering. The article examines the Balkan borders and the Balkans as a border. The emphasis is on the mental maps, the imagined borders, the rich spectrum of images: from the border – barrier to the border-bridge.

Keywords: borders, globalization, Balkans, Bulgaria, mental maps

POLICIES AND PRACTICES IN CONSTRUCTING MEMORY AND HERITAGE: THE UNION OF THRACIAN ASSOCIATIONS IN BULGARIA

VALENTINA GANEVA-RAYCHEVA

Research interest in the article is focused on the institutions of the Thracian Bulgarian refugees and emigrants from Eastern and Western Thrace. The brief historical views are a necessary context for highlighting the present-day policies of the Thracian organization. The article examines the specific features of their cultural calendar, comments on the policies for constructing Thracian sites of memory and on understanding these as part of the national narrative, as practices for the symbolic appropriation of space beyond the boundaries of the national state, for the creation of social networks, for the political use of memory and heritage. The author seeks to define whether these activities lead to „rootedness“ in collective memory, encapsulation of heritage, or are an attempt to find a perspective on the future.

Keywords: memory, heritage, institutions, policies, memorialization

BORDERS AND CATEGORIZATION: ON THE CASE OF THE BULGARIAN-BORN TURKS, RE-SETTLERS IN TURKEY SINCE 1989

MAGDALENA ELCHINOVA
The article tackles the issue of border as a dynamic social construction and an instrument for categorizing individuals and groups located on its two sides. Different systems of social categorization are described and analyzed – systems, by means of which the Bulgarian-born Turks, re-settlers in Turkey since the summer of 1989 are being defined by various social actors at various levels of the home and host society. The discussion is focused at the everyday level, though taking into account the impact of official discourses and national narratives upon the categories of description and evaluation generated at the everyday level. Whether and to what extent re-settlers themselves accept, internalize or reject the categories and characteristics attributed to them is also commented. Their attempts at re-categorization are viewed as being in coherence with their strategy of positive group and individual self-evaluation, as well as with their participation in the processes of negotiating their place and significance in the social structure, national narratives and historical processes on the two sides of the Bulgarian-Turkish border. The discussion draws upon anthropological fieldwork based on the method of multi-sited ethnography and conducted in a long span of time in different locales in Bulgaria and Turkey.

Keywords: border studies, migration, re-settlers from Bulgaria in Turkey, social categorization, community formation.


„COMING BACK“ ACROSS THE BORDER? FORMS OF CROSSING THE BULGARIAN-TURKISH BORDER
BY THE YOUNG GENERATIONS

MEGLENA ZLATKOVA, STOYKA PENKOVA

The article presents the results of a research project on the various forms of migration across the Bulgarian-Turkish border, with an emphasis on the forms of crossing the border in the beginning of the 21st century. Twenty years after the last mass migration wave from Bulgaria to Turkey, this state border is much more permeable and more often crossed in both directions, which places the problem of migration within the context of the „knowledge society“ and mobile people.
That is why our attention is focused on young people born in Bulgaria or Turkey who change their place of residence as part of their life strategies related to education, professional career, marriage, etc. The „borderline“ characteristic of this generation is evident in various forms: „going to“ Bulgaria or „returning from“ Turkey, relatives who come back as foreigners, a choice of marital partner from the „other side of the border“, etc.
These problems are presented in a comparative aspect; analyzed are the results of a sociological and ethnological fieldwork among young people with double citizenship who are students in Bulgarian universities, others who study in Trakya University in Edirne, and young people whose families had gone to Turkey but returned in the early 1990s.

Keywords: migration, mobility, border, heritage, second generation

BORDERS, MOBILITY, AND RECONSTRUCTION OF TERRITORIES

IRENA BOKOVA

This article develops the idea of the dynamic relations between borders and territories in the context of the changes impacting on Bulgarian society after Bulgaria’s accession to the European Union. The analysis concerns the development of a „border community“ as part of hierarchically constructed spaces shared by states. The focus is on the creation of ties between the territory of social action and the territory of the experienced - in anthropological terms.
In referring to the example of Ivaylovgrad, the article discusses the meaning of Bulgarian membership in the EU as experienced and perceived at regional and local level, and how people „feel Europe“ in connection with the changing boundaries and the reconstruction of territories. After checkpoints were opened on the Bulgarian-Greek border in the last decade, the personal experiences from the wars, from the refugee waves and migrations that affected several generations in the past, are used as the basis for rebuilding past ties and interaction. The process of reconstruction of the district of Thrace as an integral whole spanning both sides of the border creates new relations with the national territory but also with the political space of the European Union. At this level, Thrace, understood as a set of significant sites and landscapes, functions as a symbol representing a larger territory with which people identify – it is part of the national state, a perception of the fatherland, yet different from a fatherland as it lies outside the country’s political boundaries; it is part of Europe, in the context of the rethinking of boundaries and historical divisions.

Keywords: border, territory, mobility, cultural heritage, European Union

GURBET AND IDENTITY (the Case of Western Bulgaria, Eastern Serbia and Western Macedonia)

PETKO HRISTOV
The article presents an observation of various traditional forms of cross-border seasonal labour mobility on the Balkans, both as agricultural works away from the home place, and as large-scale temporary craftsmen’s migrations of builders, bakers, dairy workers, confectioners and so on. In countries like Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, traditional cultural models of trans-border labour mobility that encompasses the majority of the male population of entire regions have existed for centuries. These migrant groups created the specific subculture of gurbet, which the men carried with them in the big city, at the same time altering the entire model of traditional culture in their home regions. The annual journeys of men from various mountain parts of the Balkans „at work“ and „for gain“ (pechalba) in the course of the years developed specific features of the feast-ritual system and folklore in the villages of these regions; the specific gurbet „milieux de mémoire“ appeared, a basis for regional identity. The paper presents both the transformations and social impact in local societies and the formation of trans-border communities in the modernized city. At the same time, the traditional Balkan gurbet is an important condition for mutual penetration between various cultures and peoples and for creating new cultural patterns and various multidimentional identities.
The main focus is on labour mobility and temporary migrations of builders from the central mountainous part of the Balkans (so called Shopluk) and of the western part of present day Macedonia (the so called Debar construction school), which are today border regions. Their groups, marked by a variety in ethnical and confessional aspects, travelled throughout the Balkans and took active part in the historical changes and social processes on the peninsula (national liberation, modernisation, etc.) An important side of the article is the gender aspect of labour mobility – trans-border for the men and interregional for the women (especially maidens). Namely the latter became an important moment of the early modernisation and the penetration of urban cultural models in the everyday life of the village.

Keywords: labour mobility, trans-border migration, culture of migration, gurbet, pechalbarstvo

BULGARIA ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT INTEGRATION POLICY INDEX

ZVEZDA VANKOVA
For the first time integration policies for migrants in Bulgaria are evaluated with international rating which compares and correlates integration policies of 31 countries in Europe and North America. The paper aims to present how Bulgaria was assessed with MIPEX and what are the main challenges before immigrant integration in the areas access to education, citizenship, opportunities for political participation, protection from discrimination, the status of long-term residence and family reunification. In addition to the integration policies analysis, the article aims to outline the necessary steps and recommendations for their improvement in the context of gradually increasing immigration pressure in Bulgaria in recent years.

Keywords: MIPEX, integration, immigration, index, policy

MIGRATION, INTEGRATION, CITIES: A EUROPEAN CONTEXT

ILDIKO OTOVA

International migration is an increasingly topical issue. Among the interesting new perspectives on the topic are the studies of migration in the urban context and in the aspect of the policies that cities develop in response to the challenges of intense diversity. Cities are the place in which the integration of migrants primarily occurs. Both the city authorities and the European institutions are aware of this and seek possibilities for cooperation and exchange of ideas. Across international projects and networks on one hand, and research endeavors on the other, the topic is yet to be developed and enriched with examples from the cities of Eastern Europe that are gradually changing their migration profile.

Keywords: international migration, integration, integration policies, cities, urban policies

RETURN MIGRATION IN CONCEPTS, POLICIES AND PERSONAL STORIES

VANYA IVANOVA
The article is focused on return migration as an important step of the migration cycle within the increasing debate of the role of return especially in the context of development of countries of origin. The first part explores definitions, typologies and clarifications of terminology. The economic conditions in the countries of migration, the period of stay after return, the (un-)conscious intention of return are revealed as starting point for framing typologies. The second part of the article is focused on the case of Bulgaria, return policies are analyzed, embedded in the national strategies on migration and integration from 2008 and 2011. The article refers to voluntary return after economic migration and migration connected with further educational qualification. The last third part presents two return migration researches as an illustration.

Keywords: return migration, return policy, economic migration, highly qualified youth migration, Bulgaria

THE PROFESSIONAL CAREERS OF REFUGEES IN BULGARIA AND FRANCE

ALBENA TCHOLAKOVA

The article examines the specific features of the professional careers that refugees pursue in Bulgaria and France. The discussion is based on the results of my doctoral dissertation. The approach used here is comparative. I refer to the construction of a career typology that aims to define what type of career is predominant in a given societal context. The interesting result of this comparison lies in the paradoxical effect it reveals. The existence of specific deployments for accompanying refugees in Bulgaria would suggest that refugees here develop professional careers close to these deployments, and that they do so to a greater degree than in France. In fact, the opposite is true. I attempt to explain this paradox as well as other paradoxical societal effects on professional careers of refugees in Bulgaria and France.

Keywords: refugees, work, careers, typology of professional careers, international comparisons, „societal effects“

GREEK CIVIL WAR REFUGEES IN BULGARIA:· A STUDY OF THE CATEGORY OF „REFUGEE“

MARIA KOKKINOU

During the 1950s, after the Greek Civil War, Bulgaria accepted many refugees from Greece: these included men, women, and children, guerilla fighters and civilians. Some of them remained in Bulgaria while others scattered in other East European countries. The category of „refugee“ will be studied in this context. The analysis is concentrated on the actors’ experience – institutionally defined – of life as refugees; the time scope of the study is broad, spanning from the arrival of the refugees in Bulgaria (1949) through the time they were given the right to return to Greece (1982) and until 2011; the last period was included because some chose then to return again to Bulgaria. The analysis is based on archives and interviews conducted during the period 2010--2011.

Keywords: Greek civil war, Bulgaria refugees, ethnicity

„RUNAWAY BABIES“: UNACCOMPANIED MINORS IN BULGARIA

ANNA RIZOVA

The number of unaccompanied minors in Bulgaria is not large: between 20 and 30 unaccompanied minors are reported to apply for protection annually. Yet their stories are the most disturbing, and reveal immense problems: of all refugees it is the group of unaccompanied minors that experience most serious difficulties when leaving their homeland and facing the loss of their loved ones. They are the most vulnerable to discrimination and abuse, as well as the most difficult to integrate.
The European Union has taken special measures to create a common and coordinated approach to reception, protection and integration of unaccompanied minors. They quickly receive refugee status in Bulgaria, and disappear from the country soon after. This is why public servants who have been in contact with them at work, have come to name them ‘runaway babies’.
This paper focuses on specific issues of unaccompanied minors, who have either applied or received protection in Bulgaria and on reasons underlying the failure of the state to provide protection, the end-result being that unaccompanied minors quickly leave the country. It is based on both a number of interviews with unaccompanied minors and an analysis of relevant regulations and practices.

Keywords: unaccompanied minors, reception, protection, integration

INTEGRATING ASYLUM SEEKING AND REFUGEE CHILDREN IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF BULGARIA

MILA MANCHEVA, ANDREY NONCHEV
This article deals with the problems of the educational integration of asylum seeking and refugee children in Bulgaria. The text is based on the results of a study conducted in the framework of the international research project titled „Integrating asylum seeking and refugee children in the educational systems of the EU countries: evaluation and promotion of good practices“ (INTEGRACE), funded by the European Refugee Fund. The article puts under discussion the main problems of the educational integration of asylum seeking and refugee children in Bulgaria in the spheres of access to schooling, quality of education as well as protection and empowerment of children from this group. Presented is a methodology for „mirror evaluation“ of the potential for transfer of good practices in different national contexts across the EU. An example is provided of the application of this methodology with respect to the implementation in Bulgaria of the Italian good practice „Terra d’Asilo“ for educational integration of asylum seeking and refugee children. In conclusion a summary is provided of the main gaps and the needed improvements in the system of educational integration of asylum seeking and refugee children in Bulgaria.

Keywords: integrating refugee and asylum seeking children in the Bulgarian education system

EMIGRATION EXPERIENCE AND INTENTIONS OF THE POPULATION IN BULGARIA: FEBRUARY – JUNE 2011

ALEXEY PAMPOROV

The article compares the outcomes of three national representative surveys and three surveys representative for the segregated Romani quarters, all of them conducted in the first half of 2011. There are two major research topics: the experienced extended sojourn abroad, and the attitudes towards such a long term stay in the near future. Keeping in mind the methodological limitations of studying „emigration“ in the country of origin „here and now“, it turns out that there are four main states of emigration experience both about of the Bulgarian population and Romani people: Germany, Greece, Italy and Spain. Unlike the data considering the experience, the United Kingdom seems to be the new aim of the potential emigrant flows, ranging on third place right after Germany and Spain. Looking at the pull factors, the already existing network of Bulgarian friends and relatives (diaspora), and the language competence seem to be the leading determinants of the individual choice. However, working against higher payment is the main reason about the extended sojourn both as an experience and as intentions.

Keywords: migration experience, migration attitudes, migration surveys

STRATEGIES AND TACTICS OF REPRESENTATION AMONG BULGARIAN MIGRANTS IN SPAIN

MÓNICA IBÁÑEZ ANGULO
In this essay I look into the different practices developed by transnational migrants, especially Bulgarians living in Spain, in order to represent themselves and to represent the world. Beginning with a definition of the process of representation and building upon De Certeau and Bourdieu’s theories on the everyday practice, I analyze the different paradigms that inspire these representations: from a ‘cultural logic’, emphasizing belonging to a cultural (usually national) community, or from a ‘political logic’, emphasizing belonging to a citizens’ community. Moreover, by looking at the different localities and temporalities in which these representations are produced, distributed and consumed, I analyze the different dimensions of belonging to and participation into a cultural and a citizens’ community. The essay also shows the ways in which local and transnational media connect global events with local issues and suggests that in our current world global macro-processes and local micro-processes can no longer be located in a modern geography of nation-states but rather in a transnational unbounded space.

Keywords: transnational migrations, mass media, processes of representation, civil society, cultural identity, Bulgaria

MIGRATION, TRANSFERS AND SOCIO-CULTURE DYNAMIC IN THE CASE OF ALBANIANS FROM MACEDONIA

IVAYLO MARKOV
The article examines the patterns of labour mobility and migrations in search of livelihood and better living conditions among Albanian population in the Republic of Macedonia (the second half of 20th and the beginning of 21st century. Migratory processes are studied in the context of dynamics of the social and cultural models, connections and identities which individuals and groups carry and develop, and their reflections on the sending societies, as well as among the people who live temporary or for a longer time abroad. The main research questions are the following: what are the effects of transfers (financial and social) upon living conditions, village infrastructure and architecture in home places; how social organisation and family-kin relationships change, transforming into networks of mutual assistance and help, and even into business networks; how connections and relationships between migrants and non-migrants affect the social status of people, the patterns of consumption, the way of manifestation of the identities etc.

Keywords: labour migrations, social networks, culture of migrations, socio-culture change, Albanians from Macedonia

POWER SPORTS IN SOCIALISM AND THEIR IMPORTANCE FOR ORGANIZING CRIME DURING THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD

GEORGY PETRUNOV
The article presents the results from a study that focuses on sportsmen during socialism and mainly the ones from the power sports because they are the most frequently mentioned group by researchers to be recruited by organized crime in Bulgaria during the transitional period. The empirical data in the study was collected through a combination of three methods – observation, in-depth interviews and document analysis. The reasons for the active involvement of sportsmen in criminal organizations during the socialist period, their special privileges, their links with power under socialism, the intertwining of their social roles, socialization and personality characteristics of these figures of the transition are examined in the text. The survey results show that sport during socialism emerged as an extension of the repressive apparatus and political power. The power sport sportsman during socialism is built as a specific personality that displays all the traits that make him almost the perfect member of a criminal organization.

Keywords: socialism, organized crime, sport

METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR STUDING SHADOW ECONOMY IMAGE

EMILIA CHENGELOVA
This article dares to enter the internal controversial world of measurement and interpretation of economic practices carried out in violation of official regulations and rules. The article represents a brief overview of the methodological approaches applied for measuring the informal economy at European and national level and offers a „new look“ at possible research approaches in this particular area. It summarized methodological approaches, tools and especially methodological challenges when studying the image of the shadow economy among the population, employers and economically active population in Bulgaria. Elaboration of survey methodology was performed during 2010 within and for the purposes of the project „Prevention and Reduction of the Informal Economy“. Substantive survey results are subject of separate publications.

Keywords: informal economy, methodology for studying the shadow economy, indicators and methods for studying the shadow economy

PUBLIC PARTNERSHIP IN BULGARIA: FIRST STEPS AND FALSE STEPS

LINKA TONEVA
The paper presents the conclusions of a study of the literature in the field of public partnership in Bulgaria with the aim to evaluate the potential of partnership as a mechanism for public policy making. The study traces the scope, themes and specifics of the academic and expert debate on the subject. The most important successes, deficits and tendencies are singled out, which determine the possibilities of civil society becoming a governmental partner in the decision-taking and policy-making process. The outcomes of the study are ambivalent. There is explicit evidence of interaction between civil society organizations and state institutions on an increasing number of issues and with real, positive results. At the same time, there is still little qualitative advancement of the institutional-civil partnerships towards stability, sustainability and long-term effectiveness. The principle of partnership is still far from being a fundamental principle of public policy making in Bulgaria.

Keywords: public partnership, NGOs, expert discourses, public policy-making

ANOTHER PERSPECTIVE ON THE PROBLEM OF the non-response rate IN the SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

KALOYAN HARALAMPIEV
This paper attempts to answer the question how large have to be the tolerable non-response rate in the sociological research. The problem is studied through the paradigm of Bayesian statistics. Two equations are displayed – the first one allows to be pre-planned the tolerable non-response rate. The second one allows to be evaluated the range of discrepancy in estimates between realized and planned sample when the field study is already completed.

Keywords: non-response rate, Bayesian statistics, planned sample, realized sample

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