TOPIC OF THE ISSUE:
BULGARIAN AND BALKAN MIGRATIONS AND MOBILITIES
This Issue Editor: Anna Krasteva
AUTOETHNOGRAPHY OF THE TRANSITION – THE NOTIONS OF REFUGEE AND ASYLUM IN POST-1989 BULGARIA
The article analyzes the incorporation of the notions of refugee and asylum into the Bulgarian public space after 1989, when there started a multilayered process of translation of key terms relating to the political, social, institutional and cultural transformations after the collapse of the socialist regime. This process – besides being translation from one language to another – represents in its essence an effort at understanding, reconstruction and negotiation of meanings. The Bulgarian publics coined new concepts while absorbing foreign models, selecting elements thereof and combining them with previously existing local meanings. The new interpretations were elaborated under the strong influence of the rights-based discourse of the United Nations and the concomitant – sometimes conflicting and focusing on security – discourse of the European Union, in a context where the policies of those external normative sources were themselves in a process of internal dynamics and change.
Keywords: refugee, asylum, trafficking in humans, Bulgaria
IMMIGRATION CONTROL AND THE RIGHT TO FAMILY LIFE
The family is a fundamental unit of society. This holds true also when the members of a family are of different nationalities. But does the migration policy take this social phenomenon into account and what are the social consequences of that? The article strives to provide answers to these questions from the point of view of International, European and Bulgarian law through a comparative analysis of them. The author studies the boundaries of the sovereign discretion of the State, whether the State has the right to separate families and what is the scope of the right to respect for family life. The article takes note of painful problems in the practical implementation of the Bulgarian migration policy. For the first time it presents information on the coercive leave of Bulgaria by Bulgarian citizens in mixed marriages as the only way to preserve the unity of their families.
Keywords: immigrants, family, children, deportation, discrimination
MIGRATION AND CITIZENSHIP: GLOBAL CHALLENGES WITH LOCAL DIMENSIONS
The article presents the specific relations between migration processes and the theory of citizenship, a topic that has become significant for political studies since 1980. The analysis focuses on how the concept of citizenship is situated in an entirely new context under the impact of globalization processes and due to the increasing dynamics of international migration. In this connection are presented some new views on multicultural, transnational, European citizenship and denizenship.
Keywords: migration, citizenship, transnatsionalizam, multiculturalism denizenship, EU
TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY OF THE HIGHLY SKILLED: CHALLENGES FOR SERBIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS
People with human, financial and social capital marketable beyond their country of origin – the ‘brains’ – are potentially more mobile than others who do not possess such capital. Their departure has long been frowned upon as an irreversible loss for the countries of origin who invested in their education and expected a return in terms of input in development and democratic transition. In the past two decades and in line with changing migration patterns, there has been a gradual change of perspective in what used to be considered exclusively a ‘brain drain’. More prevalent today, is a focus on mobility and the so-called win-win orientation rather than on loss.
What caused that change of perspective when there has been no decrease in the proportion of the highly skilled leaving their countries and the consequences of their departure are no less alarming than before? This paper aims to contextualize the developments of the past few years in Serbia, to shed light on the changing migration patterns, and to discuss some new theoretical and political perspectives. It draws on my previous and ongoing research into the transnational mobility in particular of the highly skilled from post-Communist transition economies.
Keywords: transnational, migration and mobility, highly skilled, Serbia, Western Balkans
BORDERS OR GLOBALIZATION: BALKAN DILEMMAS
The article is looking at the paradox of globalization and borders. Two strong, yet opposite tendencies occur simultaneously: de-bordization as a result of globalisation on the one hand, and multiplication and diversification of borders on the other. The border is examined through the prism of death, business, politics, and identity. The study follows two axis: one is the overproduction and overactivity on borders, the opening and closing of spaces, the other is the overproduction of meanings, interpretations, perceptions. The Balkans are among the places of whirlpool of bordering, ordering, othering. The article examines the Balkan borders and the Balkans as a border. The emphasis is on the mental maps, the imagined borders, the rich spectrum of images: from the border – barrier to the border-bridge.
Keywords: borders, globalization, Balkans, Bulgaria, mental maps
POLICIES AND PRACTICES IN CONSTRUCTING MEMORY AND HERITAGE: THE UNION OF THRACIAN ASSOCIATIONS IN BULGARIA
Research interest in the article is focused on the institutions of the Thracian Bulgarian refugees and emigrants from Eastern and Western Thrace. The brief historical views are a necessary context for highlighting the present-day policies of the Thracian organization. The article examines the specific features of their cultural calendar, comments on the policies for constructing Thracian sites of memory and on understanding these as part of the national narrative, as practices for the symbolic appropriation of space beyond the boundaries of the national state, for the creation of social networks, for the political use of memory and heritage. The author seeks to define whether these activities lead to „rootedness“ in collective memory, encapsulation of heritage, or are an attempt to find a perspective on the future.
Keywords: memory, heritage, institutions, policies, memorialization
BORDERS AND CATEGORIZATION: ON THE CASE OF THE BULGARIAN-BORN TURKS, RE-SETTLERS IN TURKEY SINCE 1989
The article tackles the issue of border as a dynamic social construction and an instrument for categorizing individuals and groups located on its two sides. Different systems of social categorization are described and analyzed – systems, by means of which the Bulgarian-born Turks, re-settlers in Turkey since the summer of 1989 are being defined by various social actors at various levels of the home and host society. The discussion is focused at the everyday level, though taking into account the impact of official discourses and national narratives upon the categories of description and evaluation generated at the everyday level. Whether and to what extent re-settlers themselves accept, internalize or reject the categories and characteristics attributed to them is also commented. Their attempts at re-categorization are viewed as being in coherence with their strategy of positive group and individual self-evaluation, as well as with their participation in the processes of negotiating their place and significance in the social structure, national narratives and historical processes on the two sides of the Bulgarian-Turkish border. The discussion draws upon anthropological fieldwork based on the method of multi-sited ethnography and conducted in a long span of time in different locales in Bulgaria and Turkey.
Keywords: border studies, migration, re-settlers from Bulgaria in Turkey, social categorization, community formation.
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TOPIC OF THE ISSUE:
BULGARIAN AND BALKAN MIGRATIONS AND MOBILITIES
This Issue Editor: Anna Krasteva
MIGRATION POLICY: EUROPEAN, BALKAN AND BULGARIAN PROJECTIONS
Autoethnography of the Transition – The Notions of Refugee and Asylum in Post-1989 Bulgaria
Immigration Control and the Right to Family Life
Migration and Citizenship: Global Challenges with Local Dimensions
Transnational Mobility of the Highly Skilled: Challenges for Serbia and the Western Balkans
BORDERS, IDENTITIES, POLICIES OF MEMORY
Borders or Globalization: Balkan Dilemmas
Policies and Practices in Constructing Memory and Heritage: the Union of Thracian Associations in Bulgaria
Borders and Categorization: on the Case of the Bulgarian-Born Turks, Re-Settlers in Turkey since 1989
„Coming Back“ across the Border? Forms of Crossing the Bulgarian-Turkish Border by the Young Generations
Meglena Zlatkova, Stoyka Penkova
Borders, Mobility, and Reconstruction of Territories
Gurbet and Identity (the Case of Western Bulgaria, Eastern Serbia and Western Macedonia)
INTEGRATION POLICY: REGIONAL, NATIONAL, URBAN PERSPECTIVES
Bulgaria According to the International Migrant Integration Policy Index
Migration, Integration, Cities: a European Context
Return Migration in Concepts, Policies and Personal Stories
REFUGEES: FROM TRAUMA TO INTEGRATION
The Professional Careers of Refugees in Bulgaria and France
Greek Civil War Refugees in Bulgaria:
a Study of the Category of „Refugee“
„Runaway Babies“: Unaccompanied Minors in Bulgaria
Integrating Asylum Seeking and Refugee Children in the Educational System of Bulgaria
Mila Mancheva, Andrey Nonchev
EMIGRATION: DESIRED AND ACCOMPLISHED
Emigration Experience and Intentions of the Population in Bulgaria: February – June 2011
Strategies and Tactics of Representation among Bulgarian Migrants in Spain
Mónica Ibáñez Angulo
Migration, Transfers and Socio-Cultural Dynamic in the Case of Albanians from Macedonia
TOWARDS A SOCIOLOGY OF THE „GREY ZONE“
Power Sports in Socialism and their Importance for Organizing Crime during the Transitional Period
Methodological Approaches for Studying Shadow Economy Image
Debuts: Public Partnership in Bulgaria: First Steps and False Steps
METHODICS AND METHODOLOGY
Another Perspective on the Problem of the Non-Response Rate in the Sociological Research
Margins: Heidegger as a Possibility for Sociology
Corruption in Bulgarian Society: Theoretical Challenges and Possible Alternatives in Studying the Problem
Facebook and Social Reality
Sara Bozhinova, Victoria Marinova
Nikolai Tilkidjiev (1953–2012)
Roger Jowell (1942–2011)
What Kind of Civil Society Do We Need?
Sociologist, Writer, and a Politician of the Great Change: Petko Simeonov at 70
Reviews and Comments
On Inclusive Education: Tolerance for Social Diversity and the Various Needs in School. The Bulgarian and International Experience
A New View on Sociology and Its Social Function: Sociology, Power, and Societies - Svetlana Seykova
Connected Lives: Beyond Perceiving Economy and Culture as Separate and Mutually Hostile Spheres
Ideas with a Long-term Perspective