TOPIC OF THE ISSUE:

SOCIALISMS VIEWED UNDER THE MICROSCOPE

This Issue Editors: Darin Tenev, Momchil Hristov

 

NETWORK SOCIETY AND HETEROTOPIAS

How to Think of Socialism in Terms of the Heterotopical

Andrey Bundjulov

The Second Networks, the Communist Project, and After

Andrey Raichev

Network Capitalism: the Contradictory Heritage of Lenin’s Experiment

Deyan Deyanov

SUBJECTIFICATION AND IDEOLOGICAL INTERPELLATION

Towards the „Microscopic“ Analysis of the Functioning of Ideology: Identification vs. Subjectivation

Rastko Močnik

The Vicissitudes of the University Discourse: on Ducrot’s Formalization of Bakhtinian Polyphony

Jernej Habjan

Interpellation and/or Subjectification: the Socialist Subject between Foucault and Althusser

Momchil Hristov

PROBLEMATIZING THE ARCHIVES OF SOCIALISM

Reading the Communist Legacy between Dissolving and Accruing Contexts: Julia Kristeva and Vera M.

Miglena Nikolchina

Tyranny, Ideology, and the Constitution of Socialist Subjects

Todor Hristov

Ideological Messages for Everyday Life of the 1960s through the Perspective and Memory of Little Things

Ivan Elenkov

BOUNDARIES OF SOCIALIST PUBLICITY

Private Space under Socialism?

Nina Nikolova

Punishment and Infra-Penality, or, on the Socialist Economy of Repression

Martin Kanoushev

THE ARCHIVES OF SOCIALISM: METHODOLOGIES AND EMPIRICAL DATA

The Impossible Narrative and the Hidden Foundation of the Subject (On a Diary from Socialist Times)

Darin Tenev

The Contradictions of Ideological Heritage: the Example of the Discursive Practice of the „Personal Diary“ in the Times of Socialism

Stoyka Penkova

Towards the „Microscopical Analysis“ of the Ascriptions of Class Identity

Todor Petkov

Contradictions in the Heritage of the „Excluded from the Inside“: an Empirical Case

Milena Tasheva

DEBUTS

Performative Social Practices of Socialist Power. Constructing a „Group of Young People“ as Problematic by the State Administration in the Late 1960s

Svetlomir Zdravkov

NEW PERSPECTIVES ON THEORY OF THE GIFT

The Logic of the Gift. From Local Traditional Exchange to Modern Globalization

Serge Dufoulon, Mohamed El Methni

The Festival as a Creative Work of Art and as a Gift. Festive and Abductive Traces between Mana and Potlatch

Florent Gaudez

FACE-TO-FACE

Rastko Močnik

OUR INTERVIEW

The Global City is a Structural Hole in the Tissue of the Sovereign National Territory

Elitza Stanoeva Interviews Saskia Sassen

DEMOGRAPHY AND BIOPOLITICS

Demographic Issues in the Focus of Public Discourses at the Beginning of the 21st Century

Tatyana Kotzeva

Prevention of Genetic Disorders in Bulgaria: Genetic Governance and Technologies of the Self

Ina Dimitrova

DYNAMICS OF SCIENCE CULTURES IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY

A Knowledge Society?

Ivan Katzarski

Mobility of Bulgarian Scientists under Present-Day Conditionsof Scientific Activity: Forms, Motivation, Conditions

Aneta Sakalova, Raya Staikova

IN MEMORIAM

Zelma Karaivanova (1931–2011)

Mincho Draganov (1937–2011)

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

Professional Standards for Pre-electoral Surveysand their Presentation in the Media

Ekaterina Markova

24th Congress of the European Society for Rural Sociology

Mariana Draganova, Rumyana Zheleva

Conferences Based on Themes from Alexandre Dumas and with Musical Score by Tikhon Hrennikov

Stefan Nikolov

Macedonian Salad: Neither Greek, nor Bulgarian, but with an Albanian Hot Pepper in It...

Stefan Nikolov

General Assembly of the Bulgarian Sociological Association

Dona Pickard

REVIEWS AND COMMENTS

The Successful Roma: from Historical Accretionsto Contemporary Identity

Valentina Zlatanova

A Sociological Optic to Natality

Tatyana Kotzeva

The Civilizing Power of Justice

Stilian Yotov

Sociological Approaches to Money

Ivaylo Yorgov

Two New Books on the History of Economic Thought

Nikolay Nenovksy

NEW BOOKS

YOU CAN BUY FULL TEXT PDF ARTICLES AT: www.ceeol.com - C.E.E.O.L. (Central and Eastern European Online Library)

LOOK FOR OUR MAGAZINE ON BOOKSTORES IN BULGARIA

 

 

 

FACE-TO-FACE

Josip Rastko Močnik

(Slovenija)


1994–1995. Extravagantia. Ljubljana: Studia Humanitatis.
1998. Alterkacije: Alternativni govori i ekstravagantni članki. Beograd.
1998/99. Koliko fašizma? Zagreb: Arkzin.
1999. Teorija za denešno vreme: Levi-Strauss, Mauss, Durkheim: tri klasika na opštestvenite
nauki. Skopje: Magor.
1999. 3 teorije: ideologija, nacija, institucija. Ljubljana: Založba /*cf., 1999.
2003. Teorija za politiko. Ljubljana: Založba /*cf., 2003.
2003. 3 Theories: Ideology, Nation, Institution. [Serbian] – 3 teorije: ideologija, nacija,
institucija (Edicija Vesela nauka, 2003, 2). Beograd: Centar za savremenu umetnost.
2006. Svetovno gospodarstvo in revolucionarna politika. Ljubljana: Založba /*cf.
2006. Julija Primic v slovenski književni vedi. Ljubljana: Sophia.
2007. Veselje v gledanju. Ljubljana: Založba /*cf.
2009. Spisi iz humanistike. Ljubljana: Založba /*cf.

Abstracts

 

HOW TO THINK OF SOCIALISM IN TERMS OF THE HETEROTOPICAL

Andrey Bundjulov

The aim of this article is to outline some possibilities of applying the concept of heterotopia, and the limits of its applicability. In the first part of the article, certain specifications are made, for expanding the contents and use of the concept, which considerably exceed its initial content as understood by Foucault. In the second part, the author outlines the perspectives in which the concept may be applied to socialism, and certain theoretical and practical consequences of this. Socialist society is „constructed“ as literally the opposite (a mirror image“) of modern society. As such it begins to fulfill heterotopic functions that compensate for its identity. But the impossibility of modern capita-list structures (economic, political, juridical) to be entirely blocked or made powerless (destroyed), the impossibility of achieving the socialist project in its initial version, give rise to a particular kind of network formations, to „artificial articulations“ that not only play a compensatory role but engender motivations and forces that ultimately lead to the breakdown of the heterotopia. The crisis and breakdown of the socialist heterotopia, however, are not without consequences for the West. The question now is this: is there a new heterotopia „rising in the sky of history“ (W. Benjamin), and what could it possibly be?

NETWORK CAPITALISM: THE CONTRADICTORY HERITAGE OF LENIN’S EXPERIMENT

Deyan Deyanov

What was the precise type of network society in which we used to live (notwithstanding all improvisations on the communist project, as problematized by Raychev) from 1917 to, say, 1989? Were there any classes in that network society? What were they? Were they, as taught in the schools then, working class, working peasantry and intelligentsia (but not having ‘antagonistic interests’ between them), or was it a society of ‘the new class’ of Trotsky and Djilas, or one of what Sheila Fitzpatrick calls ‘Stalinist „estates“ ’, or… etc.? What was the property over the means of production and how did economic power operate? Were there capitals, and hence capitalism (since the so-called ‘forced industrialization’ and accelerated modernization more generally seem hardly possible without capitalizing the value added and without accumulation of capitals)? And, if yes, in what was this network society, marked by modernity, incommensurate with modern capitalism? To answer these questions, I will, in the beginning of the article, start from Raychev’s theory of the ‘second network’; then I will very briefly outline the network approach of Bourdieu (to put it under some criticisms, thinking ‘with him and against him’); then I will pass on how I myself think, through Bourdieu, this same neuralgic problem (Bourdieu himself never thought it: he never was a ‘historical sociologist of socialism’), and I will come – in following this approach – to some theoretical misunderstandings in Marx’s distinction between ‘capital as property’ and ‘capital as function’ in Capital; as well as the so-called ‘political economy of socialism’ used to euphemistically designate by the ideologeme ‘turnover of production funds’ (in order to escape Marx’s ‘turnover of the capital’).

TOWARDS THE ‘MICROSCOPIC’ ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTIONING OF IDEOLOGY: IDENTIFICATION VS. SUBJECTIVATION

Rastko Močnik

If at the macro level it seems that the task of an ideology is to synthesize and be able to integrate the diverse heterogeneous mechanisms that function at different and diverse sites and points in the social structure, at the micro level we face a different type in heterogeneity in which it comes out that there is no special ideological dimension of speech or of linguistic practices. Therefore, the mechanism of ideology is approached as ideological interpellation, and an attempt is made to develop a set of conceptual tools that would make it possible to distinguish between two types of interpellation: interpellation through identification, which is reproductive (it only reproduces the same ideological horizon in all subsequent discourses), and interpellation that is subjectivation (in the orthodox Lacanian sense) within the clash between varidirectional discourses, i.e. political subjectivation. This is done by building on the theories of Ducrot on the argumentation within language, of Bakhtine on polyphonic discourse and of Deyanov on prepredicative evidences and modalities of understanding.

THE VICISSITUDES OF THE UNIVERSITY DISCOURSE: ON DUCROT’S FORMALIZATION OF BAKHTINIAN POLYPHONY

Jernej Habjan

This article articulates Ducrot’s polyphonic theory of enunciation onto a structuralist theory of signifier. It shows that Ducrot’s project of conceptualizing enunciation as (re)production of intersubjective relations, rather than as representation, proves contradictory where it should be fulfilled: when analyzing ironic negation, Ducrot reintroduces representation precisely by replacing it infinitesimally with supplementary enunciators. This contradiction can be suspended by interpreting ironic negation as expletive ne, which signifies but the subject of enunciation. By focusing on such empty signifiers, enunciation can indeed be grasped beyond representation and, moreover, viewed in its institutional overdetermination.

INTERPELLATION AND/OR SUBJECTIFICATION: THE SOCIALIST SUBJECT BETWEEN FOUCAULT AND ALTHUSSER

Momchil Hristov

The general problem field of the article can be summed up in this question: what is the subjectivity that produces socialist societies and what research techniques can help objectify it? The article starts from a topical issue in historical studies of socialism: the dilemma of resistance and/or submission of individuals within these societies; it then focuses on the work of historian Jochen Hellbeck, who attempts to take a stand with respect to this dilemma by mobilizing Foucault’s concept of subject. Hellbeck has studied unpublished personal diaries from the time of Stalinism in Russia, in order to show that individuals, instead of being reduced to atomized homunculi in situations of total domination of the Party and government structures, or instead of being crafty manipulators of these structures while pursuing their own interests and goals, can be viewed as „effects“ of power; as such they actively take part in the (re)production of power but inevitably add to it certain changes due to their specific situations. The article problematizes the viewpoint of Hellbeck on the socialist subject by demonstrating the insufficiency of his analyses with respect to concepts such as „ethical care“, „problematization“, „technologies of self“, and „constructing the self as a moral subject“, which we find in the later works of Foucault. Instead of objectifying the different problematizations of subjectivity and technologies of the self in Soviet society in the 1930s, and hence deducing the individual practices of subjectification and their proximity to or distance from the basic moral-political code of construction of Soviet (revolutionary) subjectivity, Hellbeck turns directly to the individuals and their self-construction through socialist ideologemes, in order to show how, through individual experience, the ideological matrix of Stalinism comes to life and functions. The thesis of the article is that Hellbeck abandons the methodological field of subjectivity as understood by Foucault and implicitly uses Althusser’s concept of the subject as produced by and producing the ideological apparatuses of the state and thus leaves undiscussed some important elements of socialist subjectification.

READING THE COMMUNIST LEGACY BETWEEN DISSOLVING AND ACCRUING CONTEXTS: JULIA KRISTEVA AND VERA M.

Miglena Nikolchina

The text poses the problem of understanding the communist legacy between the conceptualization of, on the one hand, dissolving contexts (and especially the discreet indirectness, the „saying without saying“, and the Aesop language of alternative discourses with their inevitable ontological ligature to the regime of repression) and, on the other, accruing contexts exemplified by the opening of the Secret services archives. This framework will foreground questions pertaining to the capture of discreet – bordering on the imperceptible – emanations of the political unconscious, which complement the task of deciphering deliberate silences with the puzzle presented by uncanny moments of unintentional disclosure. An encounter between Julia Kristeva and Vera M(utafchieva) against the unlikely background of a Byzantine story will provide an example for this enigma and its interpretative potential.

IDEOLOGICAL MESSAGES FOR EVERYDAY LIFE OF THE 1960S THROUGH THE PERSPECTIVE AND MEMORY OF LITTLE THINGS

Ivan Elenkov

The article is a study of 512 matchbox labels dating from 1948 to 1970; it reveals the institutional and ideological context in which they were made.

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TYRANNY, IDEOLOGY, AND THE CONSTITUTION OF SOCIALIST SUBJECTS

Todor Hristov

The paper tries to answer a question recently raised by Sheila Fitzpatrick and Michael Gayer, who controls the acts of government in state socialist societies. In order to make the question answerable, I will describe an ordinary act of government in a primary party organization of the Bulgarian communist party – the dismissal of the cultural editor of a Bulgarian satirical newspaper. I will claim that the dominant paradigms in present-day socialism studies stemming from totalitarianism and revisionism are unable to provide an adequate account of this act of party governance, and that it is better explainable by an alternative approach which conceives the authority of the Communist party as a capital allowing the tactical legitimation of situated, heterogeneous and often irreconcilable agencies.

PRIVATE SPACE UNDER SOCIALISM?

Nina Nikolova

This text does not aspire at an exhaustive and categorical answer to the question of ‘private space under socialism’, it only attempts at delineating a field in which one could deliberate on this problem. The study has as its historical context roughly the first four decades of the history of Soviet Russia. Starting from the genesis and description of two sociologically relevant phenomena – the kommunalka and the queue, it raises the hypothesis that in this period in Soviet Russia a specific bodily mass is formed, that individuals seem to become melted into a kind of ‘body dough’. The private space as a hideaway is replaced by the refuge of the ‘uterine mass’: to hide, you must melt into the mass, you must be visible and tangible from all sides, because the less you are different the more secure and safe you are.

PUNISHMENT AND INFRA-PENALITY, OR, ON THE SOCIALIST ECONOMY OF REPRESSION

Martin Kanoushev

The article offers a sociological analysis of the socialist economy of penal repression. Punishments in the early times of socialism fulfilled a generalized function that cannot be reduced to legal regulation or to the institutional application of justice by the system of justice, оr to the regime in places of incarceration. The penal system of socialist society was centered on the corrective impact of labor upon unstable members of society, and the ultimate aim was the full transformation and accelerated construction of the historical new man. Classical socialism succeeded in building an educational infra-penalty of offences, which is only superficially a logical continuation of the social action of justice. This infra-penal system places under control the space that is filled partially or sporadically but never fully, by the laws, a space in which many violations that would otherwise escape the scope of penalizing authority, are penalized. During the late socialism there was an important reversal of the political strategy of penal authorities, going from the disclosure of crimes to the building of an all-encompassing prevention of crime. Courts were obliged to provide legal aid and prosecutors were obliged to exercise surveillance over the legality of the activity of „comrade courts“, the „voluntary squads of workers“, the committees for fighting anti-social behavior, the centers for educational work, and the prophylactics councils: all these had infra-penal functions. In this way a „complete“ institutional system for social prevention was constructed, which was meant to function effectively and provide protection for socialist society.

THE IMPOSSIBLE NARRATIVE AND THE HIDDEN FOUNDATION OF THE SUBJECT (ON A DIARY FROM THE SOCIALIST TIMES)

Darin Tenev

The paper is an essay on a diary from the socialist times, written by a young woman between 1972 and 1979. The story of the woman – married rather young, with a son and a husband that she is eventually to divorce – is reconstructed and analyzed with a stress on the modes of self-naming that she performs so as to represent her self as a highly moral personality. The efficiency of the performative acts of self-naming is however problematic. The problem is solved with the hypothesis that the performatives are based on emplotments. By the end of the paper one more layer is indicated, this time the one that narratives are founded on. This last layer is figuration. Performative, narrative, and figurative are the three layers that the hidden foundation of the subject consists of. Whenever the figurative is altered, every other layer undergoes changes which result in the transformation of the subject’s identity.

THE CONTRADICTIONS OF IDEOLOGICAL HERITAGE: THE EXAMPLE OF THE DISCURSIVE PRACTICE OF THE „PERSONAL DIARY“ IN THE TIMES OF SOCIALISM

Stoyka Penkova

The article offers an analysis of the complex process of reception/transmission of the ideological heritage in the space of discourse shaped by what I define as „discursive confessional practices“ in the times of socialism. By this the author means those everyday social (self-) analytical practices which, as a specific form of „confessing (recognizing) the faith“ represent a discursive heterotopia of (self) transformation (i.e. of becoming „what you are“) of the actors of socialist everyday life, and are thereby meant to support their identity. Among these practices are personal diaries written during that time, which may be used as a resource for study of the stratified mechanisms of inheriting, or not, the socialist ideological heritage. Such a research task involves the following steps: methodological grounding of 1) the choice of personal diaries, and of 2) the mechanisms of reception/transmission of the ideological heritage; analysis of the various modalities of inheritance which can be identified as a result of the analysis of the different layers in the social dimensions of the figures of „heritage“; an emphasis on the practical logic of certain forms of reception/transmission of ideolo-gical heritage that can be traced through the pages of the selected diaries.

TOWARDS THE MICROSCOPICAL ANALYSISOF THE ASCRIPTIONS OF CLASS IDENTITY

Todor Petkov

In the light of practical logic, some problems of the bestowal of class identity are considered. Also considered are the ‘logical’ microscopes, i.e. methods and techniques that are applicable to these problems, as developed by the Institute for Critical Social Studies, and directions are outlines for their precision and their future derivations. Within the contest of the history of socialisms and transitions, such problems are treated as constative and constitutive class labelings, identification through essence, relationally defined identities, class identity as the logical grounds for actions regarding its bearer, dynamic and ecstatic identificatory form-essences.

CONTRADICTIONS IN THE HERITAGE OF THE „EXCLUDED FROM THE INSIDE“: aN EMPIRICAL CASE

Milena Tasheva

Through the prism of an autobiographical narrative written in the years after 1989, the article analyzes the contradictory process of „adhesion“ to socialist society of children with a „faulty family origin“, i.e. children of citizens identified as „enemies of the people“.

The texts „Contradictions of Heritage“ (Bourdieu 2008) and „The Excluded from the Inside“ (Bourdieu, Champagne 1997) are used as a perspective for commenting on an extremely specific relationship between habitus and habitat, in which, despite the successful purposeful work for forming dispositions, the children of „enemies of the people“ are refused socialization – i.e. the „dead“ rejects the „living“ that is ready to accept it.

The impossibility of building a successful social biographical trajectory is the result of an identification which, insofar as it is made by the system possessing „authority“, is not only an attempt at magical action in the world but is a real performative act which actually becomes a fatum, a destiny, but a negative one, a life in the margin, without opportunities for integration into a society from which, on the other hand, there can be no exit.

The article analyses the consequences of what the official authorities considered to be (though this did not actually occur) an „inheritance of the hostile class essence of the father“; as a result of this there could be no correspondence between identity and action. This created problems both for the child and for the authorities, and necessitated for both sides the use of practical mechanisms that would establish such a correspondence. The analysis identifies the practical logic that directed the actions of both sides.

PERFORMATIVE SOCIAL PRACTICES OF SOCIALIST POWER.

CONSTRUCTING A „GROUP OF YOUNG PEOPLE“ AS PROBLEMATIC BY THE STATE ADMINISTRATION IN THE LATE 1960s

Svetlomir Zdravkov

The article presents the logic of socialist administration as an everyday performative practice; the analysis is based on the example of the construction of a group of people as being heterogeneous to socialism. Assuming that the context in which these actions are immersed is not necessarily real, but is rather the product of this same everyday practice, the author shows this context was a convenient symbolic tool for the authorities. Using it, the administration injected changes or changed the facts of everyday socialist order, and thereby politicized the order and opposed it to the individuals in question. The careful scrutiny and building of the practical logic reveals the efficacy of symbolic action and its ability to both solve the arising problems and to amplify its own position. The skilful use of words like „coupon“, „Bulgarian“, „bourgeoisie“, „influence“, etc., and their opposition along the line „ours-alien“, constructs a seemingly stable logical system. But as it turns out this stability seems stable only from a certain perspective; a focus on the details of the performative practice shows that its sustainability is due mostly to its capacity to change imperceptibly. The article also shows the possibilities of the administrative apparatus to allocate responsibilities in the different parts of the system and thereby to transform the ideological problems into everyday ones, which hence become practically solvable.

THE LOGIC OF THE GIFT. FROM LOCAL TRADITIONAL EXCHANGE TO MODERN GLOBALIZATION

Serge Dufoulon, Mohamed El Methni

The first part of the article presents Marcel Mauss’s well-known work An Essay on the Gift. The Form and Reason of Exchange in Archaic Societies. Proceeding from observations and analysis of the forms of the gift, Mauss built a general theory of exchange which would subsequently be continued and commented on by many thinkers in various scientific disciplines. Today there is a whole current of thought, led by Alain Caillé and the journal La Revue du MAUSS, which continues with research on themes related to the gift, utilitarianism, symbolism, etc. Using mathematics and graph theory, Mohamed El Methni formalizes the exchanges designated by Mauss in his Essay. The authors comment on the consequences for anthropology of the obligations „to give, to return, and to receive“ as analyzed by Mauss. The article examines the possibility of shifting and analyzing the corollaries of the theory of the gift in the assimilation of this theoretical approach by various disciplines and in the study of modern societies. Finally the authors raise the question as to how we can view exchanges in Europe, and the phenomenon of globalization faced by our societies.

THE FESTIVAL AS A CREATIVE WORK OF ART AND AS A GIFT.

FESTIVE AND ABDUCTIVE TRACES BETWEEN MANA AND POTLATCH

Florent Gaudez

In Introduction to Reflexive Anthropology Bourdieu points out that „(…) sociologists can discover in literary works the research orientations that are prohibited for them or are hidden by the censorship characteristic of the field of science“. As socio-anthropology attempts to capture the symbolic dimension of the social through art or literature, the question of the boundary arises, inasmuch as the postulate that the work of art is symbolically significant ascribes to that work a social and historical function and the possibility for it to be, as a mental experience, a particularly fruitful means of analysis in its quality of creative gesture; the possibility not only to distinguish and separate that which is commonly mixed together (Durkheim) but also at times to unite what is commonly separated. In this sense Jean Duvignaud proposed what he called the socio-morphology of the imaginary, in using as a starting point the finding that human experience oriented to the imaginary is a constant speculation regarding the possibilities and the open paths contained in embryonic form in any type of society.

Thus the objective is for consciousness, enclosed as it is in institutions and codes, constrained and even stifled by „social reproduction“, to be opened up to a virtual experience, to an expectation in the sense that Ernst Bloch imparts to this term.

DEMOGRAPHIC ISSUES IN the FOCUS OF PUBLIC DISCOURSES AT THE BEGINNING OF 21st CENTURY

Tatyana Kotzeva

This paper aims to delineate the main discourses through which public concerns on worsening demographic situation in Bulgaria are discussed. Nationalistic, neoliberal and state-interventionist discourses have been analyzed trying to identify ideas embedded in these discourses and their main proponents, their arguments in support of a specific demographic vision and strategies they preview to combat negative demographic tendencies. Additionally, reconstruction of gender relations and ambivalence of social policy effects on demographic development have been discussed within the framework of each of the three above mentioned discourses.

PREVENTION OF GENETIC DISORDERS IN BULGARIA: GENETIC GOVERNANCE AND TECHNOLOGIES OF THE SELF

Ina Dimitrova

The paper focuses on the practice of prenatal genetic screening in Bulgaria as an emerging mode of genetic governance. I argue that this is important field of contemporary biopower in Bulgaria or, in other words, a biopolitical technique and discourse, regulating and imposing certain set of habits, health and reproductive practices, conceptions of normalcy, well-being, choice and responsibility. The „new genetics“ is an example for an expert knowledge, pivotal to normalization, to governmentality and to biopower, since it provides the guidelines and advice by which populations are surveyed, compared against norms and rendered productive, and by which the late-modern subjects are fabricated within a network of instruments and techniques of power. In order to specifically understand how biopower operates in different modern settings, one must look at the conceptualization of „healthy“, „worthy“ and „unworthy“, „viable“ or „non-viable“ lives in different societies (see Hashiloni-Dolev 2007).

First, I discuss the problem in what way the medical and diagnostic practices function as political instruments, on the one hand, and as moral technologies, on the other (see Lemke 2005: 89). Then I analyze some key traits of the emerging genetic governance in Bulgaria, part of which is the practice of prenatal diagnosis, which grows increasingly routinized. I argue that the rhetoric employed by the main expert actors in the field practically amounts to a mode of directive counseling. The absence of rival discourses, usually generated by disability right activists, patient groups, ethical committees, etc., contributes to the formation of an uniform identity practices and permits the positively presented „prevention and prophylactics“ to direct „autonomous“ women, when exposed to the opportunity of „free choice“, to selective abortion. In such a sense, pregnant women are disciplined and made „responsible mothers“, which is a typical neoliberal mode of self-governing.

A KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY?

Ivan Katzarski

The article critically examines the fashionable discourse on „knowledge-based society“. The author argues that this formulation does not correspond to a clear and precise conceptual content; it does not even meet the criteria for logical correctness. The author clarifies the uses of different kinds of knowledge for power purposes. The formula „knowledge society“ tends to conceal rather than reveal the actual processes it refers to. Also discussed are the negative aspects related to the increasing instrumentalization and marketization of scientific research.

MOBILITY OF BULGARIAN SCIENTISTS UNDER PRESENT-DAY CONDITIONS OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY: FORMS, MOTIVATION, CONDITIONS

Aneta Sakalova, Raya Staikova

The aim of the article is to study the mobility of Bulgarian scientists under present-day conditions. On the basis of their own empirical findings, the authors analyze the modern understanding of mobility in science, the predominant forms of mobility and their basic characteristics. By applying the technique of path analysis, the authors identify significant differences in the motivation and conditions for undertaking certain forms of mobility. The results can be applied in elaborating policies for stimulating career growth of Bulgarian scholars.

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