Abstracts

LIFE TRAJECTORIES IN THE COURSE OF GLOBALIZATION. ON THE CHANGE OF SOCIAL INEQUALITIES IN MODERN SOCIETIES

Sandra Buchholz, Dirk Hofäcker, Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Kathrin Kolb

The article examines the impact of globalization on personal life and work trajectories and the ensuing changes in the social models of inequalities in modern societies. Presented are the results of international research projects in which the development of life trajectories in the course of globalization are empirically traced for the first time. The authors show that globalization has different impacts during different phases of the life trajectory: while the life careers of men around the middle of their professional life prove, to a great extent, stable, serious changes are liable to occur foremost for young people at the start of their careers, women in the middle of their lives, and people in pre-retirement age. The authors demonstrate that the change provoked by the pressure of globalization does not lead to the same results in all modern societies. Rather, this process is “filtered” for each country through the respective national institutional structures, which in turn shape and influence in different ways the personal life trajectories and the social structures of inequalities in modern societies: while Scandinavian countries manage to limit the growing social inequalities in the course of globalization by means of the social commitment of the state, in other social regimes inequalities are growing between those included and excluded from the labour market (conservative and southern European countries), and between people occupied with different individual resources (the liberal countries).

SOCIAL SELECTIVITY OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT IN BULGARIA. ROLE OF TUITION FEES AND STUDENT LOANS FOR THE REPRODUCTION OF SOCIAL ORIGIN IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION

Rumyana Stoilova

The article analyzes the impact on the social structure of the educational expansion at the top of the educational pyramid, which consists in a wider access to higher education since 1989. The analysis places Bulgaria in a comparative European perspective in tracing the trends in the vertical structure by education. The explanatory part of the article stresses the importance of social origin, gender, ethnicity, and age with respect to the access to higher education. In the conclusion, the author problematizes the equality of educational opportunities in access to higher education in the context of the currently applied private co-financing of education and the ineffective legal possibility for using bank loans guaranteed by the state.


EDUCATION IN GERMANY IN AN INTERNATIONAL ASPECT

Jutta Allmendinger, Christian Ebner, Rita Nikolai

The article examines the educational differences in Germany and in other countries in terms of distribution of competencies and certificates. It is made clear that people from strata with lower educational status, people of migrant origin, and young men attain lower levels of competence and certificates. The educational federalism in Germany is the cause of marked regional differences. These findings are of great social-political significance, for educational results have a serious influence on integration in the labour market, participation in political life, personal well-being, and health. With regard to the educational results in the international aspect, Germany occupies an intermediate position. Comparison also shows that the levels of competency do not overlap with the obtained diplomas of completed education. The dependencies in the connection between competencies and certificates is still an open research issue.

EDUCATIONAL EXPANSION AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

Irena Kogan, Michael Gebel, Clemens Noelke

This article summarizes the results of a large-scale comparative study on the social selectivity of education attainment in Central and Eastern European (CEE). CEE countries provide an interesting case study in view of their variation in processes of post-secondary education expansion and differentiation as well as their degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ‘diverted’ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the pattern of negative selection of students from lower social backgrounds into lower voca-   tional programs, which is well known for Western European countries. Interestingly, this diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.

SOCIAL ORIGIN, SCHOOL CHOICE AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE

Péter Róbert

The paper defines educational markets based on the major divisions existing in the school system like 1) public vs. private; 2) tracking either by academic vs. vocational curriculum or by ability; and 3) schools’ practice regarding admittance of students. It is assumed that sector of schools, tracking practice as well as admittance rules create a ‘market’, put the schools into various positions in the educational ‘field’ and parents consider these options when deciding about school choice. In addition to this ‘input-effect’ leading most probably to differences in school composition regarding social background of the pupils, there is also an ‘output-effect’, namely that school’s position in the market has an impact on students’ school performance.
The paper investigates the statistical relationship between parental background and type of school, the offspring attend. It is assumed that  parents with higher status prefer to choose schools with stronger academic curriculum, using academic criteria to select students, belonging to private sector and applying some ability grouping. Moreover, the paper estimates the impact of the school’s market position on the performance of their students. It is expected that pupils will perform better in schools with stronger academic curriculum, in the private sector, applying some practice for selection based on previous qualification and grouping the students by ability.
The paper uses the data form the PISA 2006 survey. The analysis on the odds of school choice confirms the assumptions with the exception of ability tracking. For the impact of the various market-characteristics on performance most of the assumptions are verified but ability grouping does not improve achievement. Applying interaction terms, shows that students from high status families benefit more from the education market with the exception of the religious schools.


LONG-TERM DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL DISPARITIES IN ELIGIBILITY FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN GERMANY

Walter Müller, Steffen Schindler, Markus Klein, Reinhard Pollak

This article investigates how social disparities in attending Gymnasium and qualifying for higher education in Germany have developed since the early 20th century. It discusses changes in institutional and structural conditions over time, and outlines their theoretical implications for primary and secondary social disparities in access to higher education. Analyses based on data from various representative population surveys and many years of Microcensus data then show how the influence of social origin on access to higher education declined for both men and women in different historical periods. Recent data show that women’s educational participation is less dependent on social origin than men’s. This finding partially explains why more women than men now obtain higher education.


PARTICIPATION IN NON-FORMAL LEARNING IN EU-15 AND EU-8 COUNTRIES: DEMAND AND SUPPLY SIDE FACTORS

Eve-Liis Roosmaa, Ellu Saar

The aim of the paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of participation in non-formal learning in different European Union member states with main comparison between EU-15 and new EU member states. Authors examine the training gap by distinguishing characteristics of the supply and demand for skills, assuming that employers demand for skills has an important impact on training incidence. Analysis is based on Eurostat Adult Education Survey (2007). Results indicate that comparative theoretical frameworks developed in relation to a few large, socio-economically advanced EU-15 countries cannot be fully applied across the enlarged Europe. Inequality in participation in non-formal education reflects more occupational distribution (job requirements) than the available qualifications of the workforce. Moreover, inequality in participation is higher in countries with higher percentage of low-skilled occupations, and thus with lower innovation performance. Yet in new EU member states also higher percentage of professionals and managers is increasing inequality in training participation. This might be due to the active role of the state in providing further training mainly to professionals. In the light of an enlarged EU the development of integrated EU policies needs to pay special attention to the conditions of associate countries, as transitions at the institutional level are lengthy.

THE ROLE OF ETHNICITY FOR THE RETURN OF THE MALE SYMBOLIC, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DOMINATION DURING POST-SOCIALISM

Ilona Tomova

During Post-Socialism social and economic inequalities among the largest ethnic groups in Bulgaria (ethnic Bulgarians, Bulgarian Turks and Roma) augmented significantly. This fact is often explained with cultural differences. NSI data, the 2007 International survey on inequalities (EUREQUAL) and the data from European Value Survey (2008) allow us to examine an extensive body of empirical evidence relating ethnic inequalities in the country. The author is examining the role of ethnicity on ethnic groups’ education and on the life chances of ethnic Bulgarians, Bulgarian Turks and Roma. Comparative analysis of the beliefs and values of these three largest ethnic communities confirms the claim that culture does matter. But the comparative data suggest that the exclusion from labour market and from political and social spheres matters much more than religion and culture when we try to understand political, moral, and gender differences. On the other hand, ethnicity in the ‘nationalizing national state’ is a major factor for minorities’ economic and social exclusion. The aborted process of replacement of the model of nation from ethnic to a political one, together with the prolonged economic crisis, enforced the role of ethnicity on the construction of inequalities and on social exclusion of the largest minority groups in the country.

SOCIAL INEQUALITIES IN THE CHANGING SPACE OF ONE POST-SOCIALIST NEIGHBOURHOOD OF SOFIA (THE CASE OF DRAGALEVTSI)

Svetla Marinova, Lyubomir Pozharliev, Lea Vvajsova

The article presents the analysis of part of the empirical information gathered in a study of social inequalities of one post-socialist Sofia neighbourhood. The main aim of the study is to test, on a Bulgarian field, Bourdieu’s theoretical construct regarding the interaction between structures of social space and those of physical space. The challenge for the research team was to establish and understand how social space is objectified in a physical space that is interrupted by closed streets, is broken down and distorted in its scale in the ‘prestigious’ neighbourhood of Dragalevtsi, what the relations are between the inhabitants of the new luxurious houses, the refurbished country houses from socialist times, and the small, tumble-down houses, which serve as a reminder that Dragalevtsi was once a poor village. Are these seemingly drastic social differences experienced dramatically as relations of inequality, to what extent do these experiences generate critical discourse and action for restructuring the established order of differences? The authors understand ‘social inequality’ as a practical discourse by which a given society criticizes itself, hence as one of the key tools of modern society for practical critique and self-critique of the established structures; the authors argue that this is a case of an order of differences that draws its legitimacy from the fact that the people excluded from access to public goods and services voluntarily forgo to use one of the tools of critique and self-critique provided by modern social orders.

DISCOURSE OF THE SUPERNATURAL IN BULGARIA OF THE EARLY 1990S

Martin Petrov

In this text I analyse the discourse of the ‘supernatural’ in Bulgaria of the early 1990s in relation with the broader social context of those years and show what type of experience of this broader context it reveals. Contrary to my initial hypothesis that interest in the ‘supernatural’ was a symptom of a crisis of life orientation due to the loss of certain intuitions with the collapse of the regime,  I found this discourse rather to be a continuation of certain assumptions of totalitarian propaganda and its rhetoric. What is characteristic of this discourse is its playing with the norm of rationality – the explanatory models set as ‘rational’ and the language in which they are set. A norm established by the propaganda of the totalitarian regime and embodied in its institutions through which the discourse of the Supernatural seeks to legitimate itself. My research is based on the press of that period as well as on semi-structured interviews conducted by the author.

GUNSHOTS IN CONGRESS HEIGHTS: CRIME IN A BLACK GHETTO IN WASHINGTON, DC

Svetlozar Kirilov

The paper discusses crime in a black neighborhood in Washington, DC and strives to explain why a large part of prisoners in the United States are African Americans. There is elaboration on the two major explanations: 1) structural explanation – African Americans are incarcerated in greater rates because of the remnants of racial discrimination, due to racial barriers that contribute a great part of blacks to live in poverty; 2) cultural explanation – African Americans create “culture of resistance”, interpret the mainstream white American society as hostile and reject its values.

ORGANIZED CRIME AND CORRUPTION AS A PART OF THE GENESIS OF DEVIANT SOCIETIES: ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CRIME CASE “HUMAN TRAFFICKING”

Georgy Petrunov

The rising levels of deviation and even crime during the last few years, spreading through different spheres of the social life, are attracting the researchers’ attention more and more often. Some authors (Adler and Adler 2006), are even talking about deviant societies. Agreeing with Adler and Adler, in our article we are suggesting the research of one spontaneous mechanism for the development of deviant societies from bottom to top. We focus on the empirical example of the corruption which is used by the organized crime dealing with human trafficking. “Infecting” representatives of circles of different institutions, they build unofficial networks with which the criminal organizations are expanding. Thus a process of transformation of various institutions is taking place, leading to criminalizing of social systems.

 

TOPIC OF THE ISSUE:

Education, Social Inequality and Life Course Decisions

Editors of the Issue:

Rumyana Stoilova, Hans-Peter Blossfeld

The Impact of Social Inequality, Gender and Ethnicity in Modern Societies

Life Trajectories in the Course of Globalization. On the Change of Social Inequalities in Modern Societies

Sandra Buchholz, Dirk Hofäcker, Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Kathrin Kolb

Social Selectivity of Educational Attainment in Bulgaria. Role of Tuition Fees and Student Loans for the Reproduction of Social Origin in the Higher Education

Rumyana Stoilova

Education in Germany in an International Aspect

Jutta Allmendinger, Christian Ebner, Rita Nikolai

Inequalities and Institutional Differencies in Education

Educational Expansion and Social Inequality in Central and Eastern European Countries

Irena Kogan, Michael Gebel, Clemens Noelke

Social Origin, School Choice and Student Performance

Péter Róbert

Long-Term Development of Social Disparities in Eligibility for Higher Education in Germany

Walter Müller, Steffen Schindler, Markus Klein, Reinhard Pollak

Participation in Non-formal Learning in EU-15 and EU-8 Countries: Demand and Supply Side Factors

Eve-Liis Roosmaa, Ellu Saar

Social Inequalities in Bulgaria

The Role of Ethnicity for the Return of the Male Symbolic, Political and Economic Domination during Post-socialism

Ilona Tomova

Social Inequalities in the Changing Space of One Post-socialist Neighbourhood of Sofia (the Case of Dragalevtsi)

Svetla Marinova, Lyubomir Pozharliev, Lea Vajsova

Face-to-face

Johannes Weiss

MOMENTBILDER Sub Specie Aeternitatis

The Letter. On Secrecy

Georg Simmel

DEbuts

Discourse of the Supernatural in Bulgaria of the Early 1990s

Martin Petrov

THE CRITICAL THRESHOLDS OF HISTORY

History-writing as Critique

Joan W. Scott

The Lines between Politics and History May Be Blurred, but We Need to Have a Sense that They Are There

Krassimira Daskalova Interviews Joan W. Scott

THE CRIMIMINALITY IN SOCIOLOGICAL CONTEXT

Gunshots in Congress Heights: Crime in a Black Ghetto in Washington, DC

Svetlozar Kirilov

Organized Crime and Corruption as a Part of the Genesys of Deviant Societies:
On the Example of the Crime Case “Human Trafficking”

Georgy Petrunov

margins

The Birth of Modern Economics. Reading the Book of Gilles Campagnolo

Nikolay Nenovski

scientific events

Critical Theory in Action: Plovdiv 2010

Dimitar Bozhkov

Annual Conference of the BSA Rural Sociology Research Committee

Dona Pickard

Seminar_BG or about the Escape from the Paper Stereotypes

Daniela Simeonova

reviews and comments

Social Realism Approach – the Quest of Knowledge Relevance

Elena Stoykova

The Dams of Time. A Book of Silence

Nina Nikolova

The Power which Everybody Practice

Boyan Znepolski

Identity and Social Order in Urban Space

Galin Gornev

COMMEMORATION

Tasho Pachev

new books

=================

Face-to-face

 Johannes Weiss

Основни книги:

1993. Vernunft und Vernichtung. Zur Philosophie und Soziologie der Moderne. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.

1998. Handeln und handeln lassen. Über Stellvertretung. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
1998. Weber and the Marxist World. Bd. VI der Max Weber Classic Monographs, mit einer Einleitung von Bryan S. Turner (Neudruck der Ausgabe von 1986). London u. New York: Routledge.
(под печат) Der Mensch als solcher. Über den Humanismus der Weltgesellschaft.
Съставителства:
1989. Max Weber heute. Erträge und Probleme der Forschung (Hg.). Frankfurt a.M.:Suhrkamp.
1993. Max Weber. Die protestantische Ethik und der „Geist“ des Kapitalismus. Hg.zusammen mit Klaus Lichtblau, Bodenheim (Athenäum/Hain-Hanstein: Neue Wissenschaftliche Bibliothek).
1997. Mehrdeutigkeiten der Moderne (Hg.). Kassel: kassel university press.
2001. Die Jemeinigkeit des Mitseins. Die Daseinsanalyse Martin Heideggers und die Kritik der soziologischen Vernunft (Hg.). Konstanz: UVK.
2003. Soziologische Forschung: Stand und Perspektiven. Ein Handbuch. Zusammen mit Barbara Orth und Thomas Schwietring (Hg.). Opladen: Leske + Budrich.
По-важни след 2005 г.
2005. „Heillose Vernunft, hemmungslose Gewalt. Über die Modernität des Terrorismus“. In: Kultur und Religion, Institutionen und Charisma im Zivilisationsprozeß, Festschrift für Wolfgang Lipp, hg. von Bernhard Schäfers u. Justin Stagl (Konstanzer Schriften zur Sozialwissenschaft Bd. 65), Konstanz: Hartung-Gorre Verlag, 327–339.
2005. „Vereinigungsnationalismus?“ In: Sozialer Wandel und kulturelle Innovation. Historische und systematische Perspektiven. Eckart Pankoke zum 65. Geburtstag, hg. von Thomas Drepper, Andreas Göbel u. Hans Nokielski (Sozialwissenschaftliche Schriften, H. 40), Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 211–220.
2005. „Von innen nach außen. Über Bourdieus Heidegger-Lektüre“. In: Der Intellek259 tuelle und der Mandarin. Für Hans Manfred Bock, hg. von François Beilecke u. Katja Marmetschke (Intervalle 8. Schriften zur Kulturforschung), Kassel: kassel university, 89–101.
2005. „Universalismus der Gleichheit, Universalismus der Differenz“. In: Kultur vergleichen. Sozial- und kulturwissenschaftliche Grundlagen und Kontroversen, hg. von Ilja Srubar, Joachim Renn u. Ulrich Wenzel, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für
Sozialwissenschaften, 79–89.
2006. „Die Zeit der Moderne“. In: Moderne als Konstruktion II. Debatten, Diskurse, Positionen um 1900, hg. von Werner Suppanz u. Heidemarie Uhl, Wien: Passagen Verlag, 191–199.
2006. Über Selbstexklusion und Verständigungsverweigerung/Auto-esclusione e rifiuto della communicazione (dt. u. ital.). In: Soziologisches Jahrbuch/Annali di sociologia 16. 2002/03, hg. von Cornelia Bohn u. Alois Hahn, Trient, 239–252.
2006. „Max Weber und die Kritik der Kritischen Theorie“. In: Karl-Ludwig Ay/Knut Borchardt, Hg., Das Faszinosum Max Weber. Die Geschichte seiner Geltung, Konstanz: UVK Verlagsgesellschaft, 301–311.
2007. „Die europäische Identität – aber wo liegt sie?“ In: Gerd Nollmann, Hg., Sozialstruktur und Gesellschaftsanalyse. Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung zwischen Daten, Methoden und Begriffen (Festschrift für Hermann Strasser),
Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 252–260.
2007. „Von der Wissenssoziologie zur Sozialtechnologie und zurück?“ In: Karl Mannheim. Leben, Werk, Wirkung und Bedeutung für die Osteuropaforschung, hg. von Bálint Balla, Vera Sparschuh u. Anton Sterbling (Beiträge zur Osteuropaforschung, Bd. 13), Hamburg: Krämer, 49–53.
2008. „Die Kultur der Weltgesellschaft“. In: Richard Faber/Frithjof Hager, Hg., Rückkehr der Religion oder säkulare Kultur? Kultur- und Religionssoziologie heute, Würzburg, 16–25.
2008. „Der Weber – Forscher“. In: Steffen Sigmund/Gert Albrecht/Agathe Bienfait/ Mateusz Stachura, Hg., Soziale Konstellation und historische Perspektive. Festschrift für Rainer M. Lepsius. Wiesbaden, 9–17.
2008. „Freundschaft in Einsamkeit. Eine soziologische Grenzbetrachtung“. In: Kay Junge/ Daniel Suber/ Gerold Gerber, Hg., Erleben, Erleiden, Erfahren. Die Konstitution sozialen Sinns jenseits der instrumentellen Vernunft, Bielefeld:
transkiript Verlag, 201–214.
2009. „Schutz on Weber: A Weberian View“. In: Hisashi Nasu/ Lester Embree/ George Psathas/ Ilja Srubar, Hg., Alfred Schutz and his intellectual partners, Konstanz:UVK Verlagsgesellschaft, 33–47.
2009. mit Svetlana Sabeva. „Phänomenologie“. In: Bourdieu-Handbuch. Leben-Werk-Wirkung. Hg. von Gerhard Fröhlich und Boike Rehbein, Stuttgart-Weimar: Verlag J.B.Metzler, 16–20.
2010. „‘Der Begriff der Kultur ist ein Wertbegriff’ – Über einen problematischen Grundsatz Max Webers“. In: Monika Wohlrab-Sahr, Hg., Kultursoziologie. Paradigmen – Methoden – Fragestellungen, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 53–71.
На български в Сп. Социологически проблеми:
2001. Генерализирано веберианство? Някои размишления върху най-новата рецепция на Вебер. 1–2, 206–212.
2006. Религиозният предмет и обективността на социологията на религията, 3–4, 7–17.
2008. Върху значението и границите на критиката на Пиер Бурдийо към Хайдегер, 1–2, 7–17.
2009. Защо са ни класици? 1–2, 32–40.
Участник в конференции, проведени в България
„Протестантската етика и духът на капитализма на Макс Вебер – актуалността на един класик на социологията на културата и на икономиката“, 20–21 октомври 2005, София.
„Бурдийо и критиката на теоретическия разум“ (конференция, посветена на 15-годишнината на Института за критически социални изследвания), 3–5 ноември 2006, Пловдив/София.
„Критическата теория и краткият ХХ век“, 4–6 март 2010, Пловдив.
Copyright © 2012 sp-bg.eu. All Rights Reserved.